Discover the Different Types of Household Gold Reserves by Country

  • Gold reserves are gold assets held by central banks, international organizations, and national governments.
  • It can include gold bullion, gold bullion coins, and gold certificates.
  • Gold reserves can be in physical form or in the form of paper.

Gold reserves are gold assets held by central banks, international organizations, and national governments. It can include gold bullion, gold bullion coins, and gold certificates. Gold reserves can be in physical form or in the form of paper.



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U.S. Gold Reserves

The United States is the world's second largest holder of gold reserves with 8,133.5 metric tons, behind only Germany. The U.S. gold reserves are managed by the United States Mint and are held in Fort Knox, Ky.
The U.S. government's gold reserves are held in the form of bars and coins. The Treasury Department exchanges gold for dollars at the daily London fix.
China Gold Reserves
China's gold reserves are the second largest in the world. In 2021, China held 4,658.8 metric tons of gold. China's gold reserves are held in China's central bank and in HSBC's Hong Kong dollar and gold vault.
China's gold reserves are managed by China's central bank and are generally held in the form of gold bullion. China's gold reserves are not traded on public markets.
Germany's Gold Reserves
In 2021, Germany held 3,396.1 metric tons of gold. Germany's gold reserves are managed by the German central bank and held in vaults in Frankfurt, Frankfurter Bucht, and Berlin.
Germany's gold reserves are in the form of gold bars. Germany's gold reserves are traded on the over-the-counter markets.
India's Gold Reserves
In 2021, India held 2,814.3 metric tons of gold. India's gold reserves are held in India's central bank. India's gold reserves are not traded on public markets.

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China Gold Reserves

China's gold reserves are managed by the People's Bank of China. China's gold reserves are the second largest in the world, and the country holds 1,864.6 tons of gold.
India Gold Reserves
India's gold reserves are managed by the Reserve Bank of India. India holds more gold than any other country, and it holds 6,212.6 tons of gold. India's gold reserves are the largest in the world.
Russia Gold Reserves
Russia's gold reserves are managed by the State Depository of the Russian Federation. Russia holds 2,451.4 tons of gold.



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India Gold Reserves

India's gold reserves are held in the Reserve Bank of India, which possess 557.66 metric tonnes of gold as of June 2020.
China Gold Reserves
China's gold reserves are held in the People's Bank of China. As of June 2020, China's gold reserves were 1,054.9 metric tonnes.

Russia Gold Reserves

Russia's gold reserves total 2,042.6 tons, down from 2,061.2 tons in 2017. Russia ranked third in 2017, but its reserves were 263.3 tons lower than those of Kazakhstan, and 53.7 tons lower than those of China.
Germany Gold Reserves
Germany's gold reserves total 3,381.4 tons, down from 3,393.6 tons in 2017. Germany ranked fourth in 2017, but its reserves were 52.6 tons lower than those of China.
China Gold Reserves
China's gold reserves total 3,762.9 tons, up from 3,692.2 tons in 2017. China ranked second in 2017, but its reserves were only 4.3 tons higher than those of Germany.
India Gold Reserves
India's gold reserves total 2,814.6 tons, up from 2,782.0 tons in 2017. India ranked fifth in 2017, but its reserves were 7.8 tons higher than those of Germany.
Turkey Gold Reserves
Turkey's gold reserves total 1,037.7 tons, up from 1,018.9 tons in 2017. Turkey ranked sixth in 2017, but its reserves were 14.5 tons lower than those of China.

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household gold reserves by country

Other Countries' Gold Reserves

Gold Reserves and Central Banks
Gold reserves comprise assets that central banks hold as part of their monetary reserves. As gold is universally accepted as a commodity and a store of value, central banks hold gold as their primary reserve asset.
Gold reserves are an important part of a country's monetary reserves. Countries typically store gold in vaults or in allocated accounts at the world's gold bullion banks.
Countries, including major gold-producing countries, own gold reserves, which are reported as part of the country's monetary reserves. Holding gold helps central banks manage monetary and exchange rate policies. Gold reserves also help central banks during financial crises.
Gold reserves are assets. These assets, however, are more than just physical gold bars. Gold reserves also include gold bullion, gold certificates, and central bank gold accounts.